Metal building homes have recently become quite popular, and a variety of materials is used to build them. The key criterion determining the choice of material is its good toughness, durability, safety, water impermeability, heat protection and fire resistance.
The standard option is a wooden frame house. 85% of population in European countries and the USA live in frame houses with metal profiles. The steel frame was earlier used to construct production facilities, warehouses and workshops. But nowadays it is increasingly used when constructing residential buildings.
Metal Building Homes
The basis of metal building home is totally made from metal, it is used to construct the frame of all slabs as well as roof and walls. The thickness of profiles used and their shape are specific in each case because they have to endure different external loads.
Such constructions have definite peculiarities:
- Lightweight metal frame of a house significantly reduces its weight;
- accelerated construction time: thanks to the profile straightness, you won’t need a level, plumb, special square and drill;
- reliable insulation protects from heat changes.
When building a metal building home, different heat insulation materials are used, their choice depends on specific climatic conditions. Metal does not need any special treatment and painting, it isn’t prone to shrinkage, it doesn’t burn or decay, and it has an increased operation period. It can be totally utilized without polluting the environment and preventing woods from cutting. A metal building home can be built during any season and in different climatic zones. The light steel frame technology implies building objects that are not very big. As a rule, frame houses have one or two floors.
If these objects are production facilities, they are 6 m high, with spans being up to 12 m. trusses of 24 m need setting up special profiles.
Constructing a Modern Metal Building Home
Modern technologies are based on applying lightweight steel constructions made from quite thin galvanized steel which are as good as wooden constructions of houses. The cross-section of metal profiles is shaped in C, S and Z, which provides the safe frame toughness.
The main problem of metal building homes is increased material thermal conductivity, leading to thermal bridges and condensation, has been solved by perforating profiles and creating definite air gaps as well as employing metals having different heat conductivity. The given technology is called lightweight steel construction. It provides building high quality houses and allows reducing expenses construction terms.
Pros and Cons of Metal Building Homes
Nowadays there has appeared certain bias to metal building homes. A residential frame house made from metal profiles is considered to be colder than houses made from wooden logs.
Thanks to modern technologies this myth is completely dispelled. The profile for a house frame is protected from heat emission with special heat insulation materials. The space between all frame racks is filled with heat insulation materials, for example, ecowool or mineral wool. They allow heating the house at maximum quality. It is commonplace to consider that a wooden basis of a house is more ecological and attractive than the metal one. In practice, wood is of natural origin, and it needs some additional treatment to protect it from decaying and mold, different insects with help of chemical impregnation, paints, lacquers and others. They significantly deteriorate the ecological purity of wood. Moreover, this treatment should be regularly repeated, which will require additional finance expenses.
Also, wooden houses are assumed to be cheaper than houses built from metal profiles, because wood is cheaper than metal. When the metal building home is built, a smaller volume of material is used than in case with wood choice. The weight of a wooden object is much heavier, which means that the foundation has to be of great quality, and it is more expensive than to produce a lightweight metal frame house.
To build a metal building home is much simpler and faster. A steel frame can be dangerous when laying electrical networks, and it can attract lightnings during thunderstorms. But houses of this kind are provided with appropriate and quality grounding of all steel parts. Besides, there is a special inside and outside decoration of the building with certain materials-dielectrics, which allow insulating metal elements and parts completely.
Safety of Metal Building Homes
Steel profiles, used in constructing houses, are very light, they provide certain toughness which makes it possible to use a house for a long time.
The safety of metal building homes is provided by special profiles equipped with stiffeners. They are produced from galvanized steel. The galvanization protects them from external corrosion. Steel frames are very resistant to the external mechanical stress; they don’t have any shrinkage and cracking with time, no pests can destroy them, they are fireproof. Having heat-insulating layers made from reliable materials metal building home allows living all year round.
Stages of Building a Metal Building Home
1.Foundation of Metal Building home
The lightweight metal frame construction and low house weight make it possible to put the foundation that does not require any increased toughness indices. Shallow foundations are made for these houses. The production of foundations and their construction types depend on the soil nature. Before putting the foundation, it is necessary to examine all the soil features in different seasons. The foundation of metal building home can be strip, pier or on screw piles. The strip one is short in width and doesn’t experience big loads of a lightweight steel frame. It is produced in the shape of a tough horizontal frame that allows distributing loads in case of the base deformation due to unstable and weak soil. The pier foundation consists of beams which are rigidly connected among themselves by means of special piers. Reinforced concrete, sand-lime bricks or solid blocks are used. When putting shallow foundations, it is possible to economize on building materials, labour costs. Which lead to lowering the foundation cost of metal building home.
2. Frame Construction of Metal Building Home
The basis of any house comprises a set of mandatory elements and details that greatly influence the safety and reliability of the house as well as its lifetime.
The following can be referred to these elements:
- horizontal frames;
- welded beams;
- vertical columns;
- girders for fixing wall panels to the metal frame.
The space geometry must be observed to get higher rigidity and stability of the metal building home in vertical, horizontal and longitudinal directions. It can be achieved due to the appropriate interaction of the main construction elements and details.
At first the project of a metal building home should be calculated with help of computer programmes (for example, 3D ma x). The 3D model contains all the necessary details and elements of the construction that are later produced in workshops.
This calculation will provide the high level of precision for all construction elements and details. Each item is labelled, and it will greatly accelerate the setting up. The special screwdriver technology is used at assembling Metal building home. The set of construction details and elements, each separately packed, is delivered to the site, and assembling takes place right there. Definite house modules are assembled at technological production, and after that they are assembled in one construction. Not only frames for metal building home are made at the plant, but also ready wall panels. Sometimes they are faced, equipped with windows and heating systems. This work requires good production facilities.
Ready module walls are connected with the parts of girders and slabs by typical threaded fasteners. When building a metal building home, flange beams are used for the frame. They are mounted onto the supporting frame. Construction details are fixed by welding. This method is good for building seasonal country houses.
3. Roof construction of Metal Building Homes
There are various kinds of roofs that are assembled on a house. Roofs can be single and double-pitched, and flat, keep in mind that sometimes same roof types are named differently (see picture below). Also roofs can be of complex configuration. Mostly people use single and double -pitched roofs for metal building homes. The inclination angle and height of the roof are strictly fixed at the stage of projecting a house. The calculation of necessary construction materials and elements is made beforehand. The roof consists of supporting trusses and rafter parts as well as several span slabs. The order of work at constructing a roof with metal core is analogous to that of with other types of materials: first come a special rafter system; lathing is made; vapor barrier and waterproofing are established; roof covering is placed.
The supporting rafters are made from special galvanized profiles. They are mounted on the upper binding of frame wall racks. Steel square- section beams of a profile type are used for lathing. Film is used as a vapor barrier, special thermal insulation building material is put on its top. Waterproofing film is put above it.
At the expense of metal building home roof covering classic standard materials are used: ondulin, wave slate, metal tile and others. The choice depends on the roof slope, construction complexity and financial investments.
4. Heat Insulation of a Metal Building Homes
Houses made from special thermal profiles are covered with OSB sheets. Plates made from some other modern materials are also used. Mineral wool or polystyrene foam are applied as thermal insulators for walls.
As a rule, the space between wall panels is filled with foam or aerated concrete. It is possible to use polyurethane foam for metal building home as thermal insulation. To do this, a special method of deposition is employed. The space we filled should become a special dense interlayer which will hold heat reliably and qualitatively. It is necessary to foam all gaps inside metal profiles and problem places. The thermal insulation material of metal building home must be of high quality, it should create a dense covering after freezing.
The surface of inside insulated walls should be covered with vapor barrier films. Walls reliably protect a metal building home from wind outside. Currently, heat blocks containing thermal insulating materials are increasingly used.
5. Metal Building Home Exterior
To decorate walls of a frame house you can take any widely spread finishing materials. The most economical option is to take heat blocks because they do not require any surface treatment. You can paint or plaster them. Finishing under a natural stone can be an original solution. Silicate or decorative bricks, siding, lining are also used for decorating metal building home.
Cost of a Metal building home
Cost of a metal building home will include the cost of the following important elements:
- construction and setting up.
When buying a standard house, the price will decrease due to lack of individual plan development. However, a standard common project also has its price. The cost of construction materials and work do not exceed that of for wooden houses.
Review on Metal Building Homes
The frame technology for building house is quite a new business in US, especially if we speak about using metal cores. But the speed of constructing and optimal prices play their positive role.
After considering all specific features of building Metal building homes, we can really mention their advantages. But you should remember that to avoid problems with humidity and condensate, you have to choose Light steel thin-walled structures as the core; quality modern construction materials should be used as thermal insulators; the soil nature should be considered when assembling the foundation; it is rational to buy a ready set of metal building home.
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